Git is an awesome tool for developers, but can be a bit hard to grasp at a first glance. Fortunately, the concepts you need to learn to be immediately productive are very few: I’ll briefly illustrate them in this Git cheat sheet.
# start a Git repository from scratch $ git init # copy an existing repository into the current directory $ git clone https://github.com/username/repository.git $ git status # check current status
# Add files to staging area $ git add filename # add a single file $ git add . # add all files, but not deleted ones $ git add --all # add everything # Stashing takes the current state of the working directory and # puts it on a stack for later $ git stash # add current changes to the stack $ git stash list # see what's in the stack $ git stash apply # bring back the saved changes
$ git commit # open the text editor (usually vi) $ git commit -a # automatically stage modified files $ git commit -m "foo" # commit with message "foo" $ git commit -am "foo" # both stage files and commit with message "foo" # View commits log (in a pretty way) $ git log --oneline --decorate --graph
4. Managing remotes
$ git remote add origin https://github.com/user/repo.git # You can also add your GitHub username and password on the remote URL: $ git remote add origin https://user:firstname.lastname@example.org/user/repo.git $ git remote rm origin # removes the `origin` remote
$ git push -u origin master # -u here tells git to remember the parameters # so that next time we can simply run: $ git push
$ git checkout -b new_branch # -b is to checkout and create a branch at the same time. # This is the same thing as doing: $ git branch new_branch $ git checkout new_branch
$ git checkout master # return to master branch $ git merge --no-ff foobar # merge `master` branch with `foobar` branch $ git branch -d foobar # delete branch locally $ git push origin :foobar # delete branch on the origin remote
$ git tag -a v1.3.37 # tag the HEAD (most recent commit) $ git tag -a v0.6b f49a23c # tag the commit with SHA `f49a23c` $ git tag -a v4.2 -m "jelly bean" # append a message
That’s all, folks. I know I could have explained much more every single command, but that’s not the point of this article. I just wanted to give you a quick-start pragmatic reference; in fact, these are the commands I personally use more frequently.
Do you think some very useful commands are missing in this cheat sheet? Leave a reply.
- Update March 5th: added tagging.
- Update April 23rd: just made some “refactoring” and added
- Update Dec 3rd: I’ve updated the “merging” section with the command for deleting the remote branch as well. I’ve also added the
--no-ffoption, that disables fast-forwarding (reason explained here).